Thursday, December 5, 2019

Class Actions and Duplicative Litigation

Question: Discuss about the Class Actions and Duplicative Litigation. Answer: Introduction: Class action is one of such lawsuits in which a group of people, come together and commence claims against another person. Such a group is collectively represented by one of the members, who belong to the group (Greer, 2010). Characteristically, the plaintiff sues the defendants in a class action on behalf of a group, which also consists of people who are not present at the time of litigation. This is one of the key differentiating points in a normal litigation and a class action, as in the former, the parties are required to be physically present while the proceedings are continued (Anderson and Trask, 2012). The laws of each and every nation define the manner in which a class action has to be governed and dealt with. Though, generally, the group in class action belongs to such individuals who have been harmed in same way, by the same defendant (Eisenberg, 2016). So, instead of initialing different proceedings for a similar matter, the class action helps the individuals belonging to such a class action in a single lawsuit and this decides upon the injury claimed. Through the review of the relationship amongst an employer and an employee, a class action could be avoided, provided such a review is done in a periodical manner (McDermott Will Emery, 2007). The engineers can benefit from the class actions for avoiding the issues which have been claimed against them. Even if in a class action, one of the injured parties can be proved as wrong, the foundation of the entire class action can be shook. And so, the closure of such actions can become easier. Also, the damages claimed through such class actions can be reduced. Class actions also help in unifying of the damages to be paid, and hence avoiding duplicative litigations (Sherman, 2017). The issues which have been raised in the previous litigations against the company, or against some other organization, can be used as a guiding light for handling the current action, along with taking precautions so as to avoid future claims (Johnson, 2013). In Matthews v AusNet Electricity Services Pty Ltd Ors [2014] VSC 663, the class action was brought against SPI, i.e., Electricity Services Pty Ltd, previously known as the SPI Electricity Pty Ltd; against UAM, i.e., the maintenance contractor who has the responsibility of periodical inspection of the power line; and against the State parties, i.e., the different entities belonging to State of Victoria, as they had the duty of fighting of fires, managing forest land and policing of emergencies (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2014). Here, a range of people can come together to initiate class actions against the parties highlighted above. The class action was initially brought up by Leo Keane; though, later on, the plaintiff was substituted by Carol Ann Matthews (Milovanovic, 2011). The class action made by Mathews was on behalf of the individuals summarized below: The individuals who claimed for a personal injury; The individuals who suffered an economic loss, which was not due to the damage caused to their properties or for the injury caused to such individuals; As per Part 3 of the Wrongs Act 1958, the individuals who died due to fire; and The individuals who suffered a loss or damage to their property (State Government of Victoria, 2014). In the quoted case, a settlement to the value of almost A $500 million was achieved; though, the liability was no admitted by any of the parties. This however, does not mean that there was no liability in the given case (Farnsworth, 2016). There is a strong base for attribution of liability for the damages resulting from the Black Saturday bushfires, and these are in the nature of negligence and negligent pure economic loss. Before applying these to the case here, the base of these laws have been highlighted. Negligence is one of the torts in Australia. Under negligence, an individual owes a duty of care towards another and there is a breach of this duty, which results in a harm to the other person (Kelly, Hammer and Hendy, 2014). In order to establish a case of negligence, the duty of care has to be clearly established (Turner, 2013). This has to be followed by a breach of duty of care and this breach has result in an injury or loss. These are the essential elements of negligence, without which a case of negligence cannot be made (Greene, 2013). The justification behind negligence is to affix an obligation of care on people doing some activity, which can pose as a threat resulting in an injury to another person (Trindade, Cane and Lunney, 2007). However, there has to be a direct causation between the injury caused and the negligence. The injury caused also has to be substantial in nature and cannot be remote. Lastly, there has to be a foreseeability of the risk, so that a breach of duty of care can be established (Statsky, 2011). Once negligence can be established, with the help of elements quoted above, the injured party can take action for claiming damages in form of monetary compensation, or for the non-pecuniary damages for the emotional distress (Latimer, 2012). The snail in the bottle case or Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] UKHL 100 is a prime example of negligence and its claims. In the mentioned case, Donoghue was the consumer, who drank the ginger beer from the bottle manufactured by Stevenson, and fell ill, as a result of the dead snail found in the bottle. The manufacturer held that the plaintiff should sue the caf owner, which was located in Paisley, Renfrewshire as he had served the bottle. But the court held that the manufacturer owed the duty of care to its consumers and hence, had to compensate Donoghue for her loss, resulting from negligence (Harvey and Marston, 2009). A similar view was taken in Grant v The Australian Knitting Mills [1935] UKPC 2, where the manufacturer had to compensate Grant for the resulting dermatitis due to negligence of the defendant in manufacturing of the woolen underpants (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2014). In this case study, the negligence was applied through the statutory legislation of the Wrongs Act 1958. Section 48 of this act covers the basic principles associated with negligence. This section mandates that the risk has to be predictable or foreseeable and cannot be inconsequential. Along with this, a sensible person, in similar situation, would have taken a precaution against the risk of harm. As per section 49 of this act, the burden of taking precautions is ascertained through the fact of avoidance of the risk of harm, in addition to the succeeding acts which could have been undertaken to mitigate such risk of harm (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2014). For this case, the plaintiff had to establish the negligence of SPI, under section 51(1), was the reason for the occurrence of harm. Moreover, the burden of establishing this was placed over the plaintiff under section 52, based on the balance of probabilities, in addition to the pertinent facts as regards to the issue of causation (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2014). It had been successfully shown for SPI that there was a presence of real risk of failure related to scheduled inspection. For SPI, the negligence was claimed to be regarding the nuisance in legal sense, the asset management, the oil-operated circuit re-closer, the targeted damper, and the management of electricity. In the view of Osborn J, SPI had to have known regarding the potential risks (State Government of Victoria, 2014). Apart from SPI, there is also a segment of liability which falls over UAM as the maintenance contractor. This related to his failure in taking the care and skill while carrying out the pre-fire scheduled inspection in Februarys 2008. So, for SPI and UAM, the liability arises from negligence (State Government of Victoria, 2014). The previous part highlighted how the legal liability of negligence was fixed over SPI and UAM due to the negligence which resulted in loss for the individuals raising the class action. Though, there are some limitations which are applicable for the recovery of damages. These limitations are limited to the claims raised purely for economic loss due to negligence. Negligent pure economic loss relates to the loss which is to be borne by the individuals, not resulting from a physical injury but from the economic loss (Harp, 2009). The class action initiated against SPI and others by the individuals, who suffered an economic loss, would be restricted through the applicability of this principle. Where the case of negligent pure economic loss is established, the general rule states that a no recovery rule has to be applied (Hunag, 2011). The base of this rule was born through the case of Rylands v Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 330, [1868] UKHL 1. In this, the mill was owned by the defendant and he constructed a reservoir on his land. This reservoir was put over a mine which was abandoned. The water of this reservoir was filtered through this very abandoned mine. Later on, this water spread over the mine of plaintiff, which was a working mine. And this resulted in far-reaching damages to the working mine. The court in this held that the claim for recovery of pure economic loss could not be held. Furthermore, the defendant could only be held liable for using the land in a manner in which it was not allowed (Swarb, 2015a). Another case where this principle was established was the case of Weller v Foot and Mouth Disease Research Institute [1966] 1 QB 56. In this case, a virus escaped from the premises of the defendant and infected the cattle of the plaintiff. Due to these reasons, the cattle were rendered unsellable. The plaintiff brought a case against the defendant for the loss of profit, highlighted that the cattle would have been fine, had the virus not leaked. Though, the claims of plaintiff failed, owing to pure economic loss, which is not recoverable (Swarb, 2015b). Hence, on the basis of these two cases, the people in the class action, who have lost their housing or source of income, could be restricted from claiming damages, due to those being pure economic losses. The Black Saturday bushfires case can be taken as a leading example for dealing with the claims which arise due to negligence against any organization. Furthermore, for future claims also, this case provides guidance for limiting the exposure for claims being raised. This can be done by undertaking the care in points where SPI and other failed, so as to avoid the occurrence of fire. For instance, had the UAM undertaken the inspection work properly, the propensity of the fire could have been decreased. The organizations, for avoiding claims of negligence being raised, should pay attention to the precedents. Precedents are the court orders, or the verdict of case which have been decided in the court of law, for some other case (Legal Information Institute, 2017). Precedents, or the prior decisions, are applicable on such courts which are subordinate in hierarchy to the court, which has given the particular derision (Duxbury, 2008). In addition to the precedents, the established case laws are also to be taken care of, while undertaking the actions required for avoiding a claim of negligence being raised. Moreover, once a case of negligence has been used, such cases can be relied upon, for established their side of the story, as the precedent would support their side. To show how a case can be used in a particular case, some of the cases related to the case of Mathews, have been elaborated below. In the case of Johnson Tiles Pty Ltd v Esso Australia Pty Ltd [2003] VSC 27, an explosion took place as a result of the carelessness of the defendant in maintenance of the plant. The plaintiff initiated a case against Esso, the defendant in the Supreme Court of Victoria. Most of the claims raised in this particular case were related to the pure economic loss. While giving their judgment, the court held that this particular case was similar to that of Donoghue v Stevenson, in addition to that of Grant v Australian Knitting Mills. The similarity was drawn for the duty of care which Esso owed to its customers, for avoiding the stopping of the gas, which ultimately led to the property damage. However, the statutory framework could not put a duty on Esso for such economic loss and so, Gillard J held that a duty for economic loss was not owed by Esso (Sweeney, 2004). In the case of Woolcock Street Investments v CDG Pty Ltd [2004] HCA 16, the question raised in front of the High Court was about the accountability of the architect or builder of any commercial building to a person who purchases the building subsequently, for the faults in the construction or designing of a particular building, resulting in economic loss. The decision given by the High Court in this case was quite significant, especially for all the architects and builders, as they denied their liability in such cases (Allens, 2004). Hence, for the future, this case can be used for establishing that the builder or architects did not have the liability for the negligence claims. If there are cases which support a particular stance, there are those which can be used to oppose the same. An example of this is the case of Burnie Port Authority v General Jones Pty Ltd (1994) 179 CLR 520. Here Burnie was the defendant and General Jones was the plaintiff. The property of the plaintiff was kept at the building owned by the defendant. While carrying on the construction work, by the independent contractors hired by Burnie, the building was burnt down in its entirety and the property of Burnie was destroyed. While giving the decision of this case, the High Court decided that the verdict of Rylands v Fletcher had to be discontinued. As a result of this, General Jones could successfully claim the damages from Burnie for the loss caused (Sappideen at al. 2009). This shows that for the case of Matthews, the case of Burnie can be used for claiming the economic loss. And so, the individuals under the class action, who claim for economic loss due to damage of house or loss of source of income, could be held successful in their claims. This affirms the manner in which the precedents and the established case laws can be used for supporting or opposing a particular claim raised in case of negligence. So, the organizations have to use these to their benefit, and be ready to defend themselves against the cases, which can be used against their claims. In the given case study, the settlement amount was the only thing decided and the particular faults were never fixed. However, if the fault had to be fixed, the above highlighted case laws could be used as a weapon or shield, depending upon the side of the party. When such a situation arises, where both parties have strong case against the each other, the judgment of the established case which is most similar to the problem case is adopted. So, for Matthews, the most appropriate case would be that of Johnson Tiles Pty Ltd v Esso Australia Pty Ltd. This is because of the similarity in the facts of the case. And using the verdict of this case, SPI and others could avoid the claims of negligence, in form of pure economic loss. Though, they would still remain liable for the physical loss. Current Standards The Engineers Australia Code of Ethics is the code which is applicable over the engineers in Australia and it is such a code, which is related to their field of knowledge and experience. This code has been broadly divided into four key areas as per which, the engineers are required to exercise leadership, promote sustainability, demonstrate integrity, and practice competently. By adhering to this code in a strict manner, the chances of a claim being raised for negligence can be minimized. The reason behind this stems from the requirements of this code. Under this code, the engineers have to identify the stakeholders, their needs and requirements, and that of the upcoming generations. They have to act based on properly informed conscience, be honest and trustworthy and also have to respect the others dignity while doing their work. They are also required to maintain professional competency by attending regular sessions (Engineers Australia, 2015). By ensuring that their work is done in a proper manner, a slip up or negligent act could be avoided altogether and so, the loss could be easily eradicated. Though, in case this code is not followed to the spirit and letter, a case of negligence could easily be raised. References Allens. (2004) Litigation Dispute Resolution. [Online] Allens. Available from: https://www.allens.com.au/pubs/ldr/recall2jun04.htm [Accessed on: 03/04/17] Anderson, B., and Trask, A. (2012) The Class Action Playbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Australasian Legal Information Institute. (2014) Matthews v AusNet Electricity Services Pty Ltd Ors [2014] VSC 663 (23 December 2014). [Online] Australasian Legal Information Institute. Available from: https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/cases/vic/VSC/2014/663.html?stem=0synonyms=0query=title(Matthews%20and%25 [Accessed on: 03/04/17] Duxbury, N. (2008) The Nature and Authority of Precedent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eisenberg, J.N. (2016) Litigating Securities Class Actions. New York: LexisNexis. Engineers Australia. (2015) The Ethical Engineer. [Online] Engineers Australia. Available from: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/portal/news/ethical-engineer [Accessed on: 03/04/17] Farnsworth, S. (2016) Black Saturday bushfires: Victims to get compensation payouts before Christmas. [Online] ABC News. Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-07/black-saturday-bushfire-survivors-to-receive-payout-christmas/8099322 [Accessed on: 03/04/17] Greene, B. (2013) Course Notes: Tort Law. Oxon: Routledge. Greer, M.H. (2010) A Practitioner's Guide to Class Actions. Illinois, United States: American Bar Association. Harp, V.H. (2009) Modern Tort Law. 7th ed. Oxon: Routledge-Cavendish. Harvey, B., and Marston, J. (2009) Cases and Commentary on Tort. 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Huang, Y. (2011) Recoverability of Pure Economic Loss Arising from Ship-source Oil Pollution. Berlin: Lit Verlag. Johnson, E. (2013) To Establish Justice for All: The Past and Future of Civil Legal Aid in the United States [3 volumes]: The Past and Future of Civil Legal Aid in the United States. California: ABC-CLIO. Kelly, D., Hammer, R., and Hendy, J. (2014) Business Law. 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge. Latimer, P. (2012) Australian Business Law 2012. 31st ed. Sydney, NSW: CCH Australia Limited. Legal Information Institute. (2017) Precedent. [Online] Legal Information Institute. Available from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/precedent [Accessed on: 03/04/17] McDermott Will Emery. (2007) Defending Against Class and Collective Employee Actions. [Online] McDermott Will Emery. Available from: https://files.mwe.com/info/news/wp0207a.pdf [Accessed on: 03/04/17]

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Burning Chrome Review Essay Example

Burning Chrome Review Paper Essay on Burning Chrome My dear Fortunato, how glad I am to have met you. Whats your youthful appearance. And I have sent today a barrel amontilyado.E.A.Po, The Cask of Amontillado Those wishing to cool his krovushku amusing horror, and to drink The Cask of Amontillado suggest this story The next, night, serving. Gibson-burger! =) And another story from the book Burning Chrome read. This time Boondocks. I would have told you more about the story Duel, but listing with him was safely forgotten in one of Moscow cafes. When the loss was noticed, I was lying on the tabloid bench, abdominal pleasantly gurgling eaten soup, and cerebellum erotic massage the memory of reading the outback in short, to go was back broke We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer So, the story The Boondocks. . Luxurious. Hmm, somehow I do not know any other adjectives in relation to Gibson except in superlatives. Apparently, it is an obsession, akin to the one that appears after the bite of a werewolf or vampire. Frankly, I spent two nights at the home of a fan of Gibson. But, apparently, he did not bite. And my trip to Nosferatu Castle has occurred after I sat down. However, the fan is not without sin it was he who gave me my first accordion with Gibson Boondocks. a strong fantasy story. Leave his emotional component which everyone will be able to twirl himself as he wants. Let us turn to the facts. Near future. Soviet cosmonaut (the story was written in the late 80s, and then the belief in a bright future red from the West was still strong) flies to Mars, through a series of routine measurements. Undershoot to the destination its ship disappeared from radar. Its not in a panic, and in a stupor. After several long months of otrygnet space ship with Olga Tovyevskoy (so-called astronaut), as if from nowhere. Abandoned ship. Tovyevskaya naked, curled up in a fetal position. Her hands were broken in the blood. Her hands shattered navigation equipment. In her hands shell of unknown origin. This is the complication of the entire cosmic cheese-boron story Boondocks. Olga Tovyevskaya became the first stopschiki on the road. On the trail you can get, if youre lucky. Lucky to get a little even less luck with her back alive. Although, I wish they were dead. Many Madness bring with them, and various artifacts for example one of them inscribed formula cancer drugs. And because of the high value of the artifacts government fed highway more and more astronauts. Moloch. But thats only track and without any space penetrated into the minds of some who himself happy to feed her mother. And then there are those who try to help rehabilitate those who have returned from the road. They meet returnees in an artificial Eden -. Which repeatedly appears Hell Olga, must have known, must have it all somehow foresaw She tried not to let us go on the road, there. , visited by herself. She knew that if people find it, they will have no choice, they have to go. Even now, knowing what I know, I still want to go on the track . in general, creepy, scary and terribly addictive fantasy story in the best tradition of supernatural horror in literature (which we coh but something told Lovecraft) and cosmic horror. If you want to tickle your nerves before bedtime to you on these pages. Be careful of the torches at the entrance is not issued Two cinematic association:. The first the film Event Horizon; The second now I know where Garland natyril ideas for the script deniboylovskogo Peklo. Burning Chrome Review Essay Example Burning Chrome Review Paper Essay on Burning Chrome If death was abolished, but only together with the perishable body, the life of the mind could be considered a full life? After reading each new work of William Gibson becomes somehow uncomfortable to live. A strange heaviness pressing on the chest, throat should com. The obvious question: How, how can you write? Write so that after every short story in the brain is swarming husks pompous epithets? To get the full pleasure from works of Gibson have to stop being afraid. Afraid of what the world can intrude inside you, something is broken. It must be completely open. Imagine yourself a flower bud opens. Imagine his flesh torn open as the jaws of prey. Imagine yourself the Big Bang. Anyway, what practices you use. Simply open. And then Gibsons prose will enter into you, and you can whole being, the whole fantasy world to embrace it. At first, you Volodina swirl before your eyes sweep a kaleidoscope of images. It was only later, moving away from this mess, you will see in a bright colorful field his works a single trail, which will lead you through the pages. We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Winter Market very strong story. And, as Gibson is not surprising to me again about love. I feel sorry for those who see in the works of William a cyber-punk and a riot of crazy fantasy technologies of the future, but not just eternal human tragedy Casey -. Editor in the studio Autopilot. We can assume it is something like a movie studio. Only in the near future instead of a movie recorded and circulate copies to the emotions. And very appreciating people who are able to build strong, vibrant emotional images. Such to connect to them you will immediately jolted from dusty stuffy apartment in Moscow have thrown on the night highway, on whom you are on a motorcycle at a supersonic speed Lisa -. A strange girl will pick up almost in the trash, where she came to die. She was ill from birth. Move it only helps skillfully exoskeleton. The case will bring Casey Lisa and he will discover that this girl emotional genius. He had never experienced such a return. No one has yet experienced. Naturally, she will soon be the new star of Hollywood. But it is not all you need. Her only goal to get rid of the mortal body. So she digitize self, and the body will be destroyed. I am kind of cost without spoilers, Gibson will bring you up to speed even on the first page of the story. Then the fun begins This is a surprisingly soulful and sad story about love, genius, memory trap, pathology attitude Well, the main question, and whether life without death is possible -.. It It does not leave you immediately after reading. There is something to think about. Burning Chrome Review Essay Example Burning Chrome Review Paper Essay on Burning Chrome With the story of Fragments of a Hologram Rose by William Gibson debuted in science fiction. It is this story became his first publication. And for 32 years, we live in the future, which came up for us, William. I can not say that I liked the story. Or rather I did at first was puzzled. Somehow he could not be attributed to the first experience (although it can be seen how Gibson thought his world), the author of kryshenosa that I felt from Johnny Mnemonic and Burning Chrome. Soon after reading the story was already going to take over the Hotel New Rose , I was covered. I could not change the printed page. I could not, physically. He took his hands under control. Got out a new story. I tried to get a grasp. Something inside torn but it was drawn not to remain silent not include player Thinking Remembering the details Pieces is what happens when you solve a difficult logical puzzles and complex equation, desperate and suddenly -.. insight Somewhere there was a mistake in the beginning.. Come. And quietly, calmly solvable difficulty. That Youre wrong it does not matter What -. That you undertook to untangle the knot this is where youve been on the right track We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Burning Chrome Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Fragments of a Hologram Rose story poignant This is a story of unrequited love story of both pushed love grinds person Moloch loneliness So it was in Bulgakovs morphine So is there and fragments Dr. Polyakov tries to forget his beloved in a vein is morphine protagonist of fragments -.. Parker tries too. The brain inject new drug probabilistic sensory perception (ENE) a technology with which you can feel other peoples feelings. Morphine gradually kills Polyakova. At Parker, too, there is no chance And again cyberpunk Gibson -. Only certain entourage. The fragments he generally kept to a minimum. And in fact it is the product all the same, the eternal, the Greek tragedy But now I can say.. I liked the story. Very. P.S. By the way, an interesting twist in the late Gibson from the futuristic cyberpunk to the psychological and philosophical thriller, if it is not connected with the fact that we are gradually and the writer himself joined in the future? In the 90s did not appear apparatus ENE, and in two-thousand young people do not start to get involved in replacing his eye on the highly technical implants, and virtual reality still remained dull set of zeros and ones and not charming hallucinogenic-drug Napping, where data protection looks like black ice? But I do not think that Gibson because of this upset. On the contrary, like Alice, committed the long jump down the rabbit hole All curiouser and curiouser. And because Gibsons prose (judge, however, solely based on the novel Pattern Recognition and what I know about the Spook Country) is no less curiouser.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Under Ground Railroad essays

The Under Ground Railroad essays In Americas 19th century, many slaves escaped North by way of the dangerous Underground Railroad to attain freedom. It was the most effective protest against slavery, resulting in many free lives. The term Underground Railroad does not mean underground tunnels, but rather secret routes escaped slaves followed, usually leading them north to Canada; the free land. Thousands of slaves escaped yearly through treacherous conditions to attain their freedom. Not only did the slaves have to be determined and secretive, they had to be strong as well. To defy the Fugitive Slave Act, many abolitionists risked their lives to covertly help hide the runaways, protecting them from bounty hunters. The Underground Railroad was the road the freedom for the blacks, no matter how far they needed to travel, they were determined to reach independence. Most slaves were owned by plantation owners who used them for field and housework. There were many principal objectives for running away: long exhausting hours, malnutrition, beatings, and fear of being parted from loved ones. Most escapees were men whose ages ranged from 16 to 35 years. Many masters offered little or no pay, forcing slaves to live in unhealthy living conditions. As a result, many were determined to run away, but mainly because coloreds hungered for liberation. The Underground Railroad spanned thousands of miles, from Kentucky and Virginia across Ohio and Indiana. In the Northerly direction, it extended from Maryland, across Pennsylvania, into New York, through New England. As a guide, thousands of slaves followed the North Star on clear nights, leading them to their next stop or station. Station houses were not merely places for a nights tarrying, but homes where the ill and fatigued might remain and be cared for until strong enough for the onward journey (James qtd. MacDougall 5). On clouded evenings, tree moss, w ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

How Effective Are Educational Programmes in Improving Self-Management Essay

How Effective Are Educational Programmes in Improving Self-Management for Patient with Type 2 Diabetes - Essay Example Findings: The findings indicated women were more responsive to such studies than men. Nearly 50% of the patients showed good progress in all five parameters like reduction in weight, increased psychological health and good control over glycaemic level. In the rest, 30% people showed good improvement in three of five parameters and the rest showed good improvement in any two parameters. The study was conducted over a period of 12 months time and the post-study monitoring was continued for one more year. Conclusion: The self-management studies for Type 2 diabetes patients are very effective provided they are given in a friendly and locally accepted form, rather than in an experimental way. Introduction The Center for Disease Control website states nearly 17 million people in the US have diabetes. It accounts to nearly 6.2% of the total countries population. WHO says one in 10 adults worldwide have diabetes. It identifies Hypertension and Obesity as the main causes for the drastic incre ase in the illness. In Europe nearly 5% of the total population is affected by Diabetes (IDF, 2007). In fact, the country implements rewards for primary health care centres controlling diabetes within their region effectively (Khunti, K et al, 2007). Most of the people suffer from this condition because of lack of awareness. "Had I known earlier, I would have avoided ..." is a common phrase heard from the new diabetes patients. Even after the advent of the diabetes many people are clueless about how to handle the situation. This study aims in measuring the effectiveness of the self-education programmes among the patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. It analyses various studies conducted on the subject by many scholars and put forward a unique and effective plan to improvise the same. Objectives of the Study 1. The patient, his immediate family members and friends should understand the root cause of the illness and why it occurred. 2. Several sugar patients are completely ignore t he wounds in their body, which leads to several complications like amputation (Massi-Benedetti, 2002). Hence, the patients are taught exactly how to take care of themselves properly. 3. Patients are educated about taking proper medications on time and the dangers of missing them. They know how to handle themselves in times of emergency. 4. They are capable of checking their blood glucose level regularly and indicate proper results to the doctors. 5. They are well aware of the fatal side effects of the illness like cardiovascular diseases and take appropriate measures like doing regular exercises and following a proper diet to avoid the same. Literature Review â€Å"Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) in adults is a global health problem. It is a disorder of the endocrine system characterised by abnormal fluctuations in blood glucose levels, usually related to a defect in insulin production and glucose metabolism† (Dunning 2003).Diabetes starts as a mild illness. In course of time it can cause fatal side effects like amputation, blindness, stroke and cardiovascular illness. In addition to physical issues, patients undergo severe stress due to uncontrollable glycaemic level in the body. Years of health negligence, lethargic lifestyle and dumping of sugary foods is the main cause to the